The significance of logistics pallet standardization
Case question one:
1. The self-weight is small, the self-weight of the pallet is small, and the labor consumed for loading and unloading and transporting the pallet itself is small;
2. Easy to return to empty, low cost of pallets, easy to substitute for each other, and easy to return to empty by using each other's pallets to compensate;
3. It is easy to install on the plate, and it can be processed by bundling and tight packing after loading, which is easy to use;
4. The combined quantity is large, and a certain amount of goods is concentrated, which is much larger than the combined quantity of general packaging;
5. Goods are poorly protected and difficult to store in the open, requiring warehouses and other supporting facilities.
Case question 2: The ways to share pallets in intermodal transportation are: instant exchange, lease, lease and exchange, and settlement and exchange.
Case question 3: Logistics palletization includes standardization of pallet size specifications, standardization of pallet manufacturing materials, standardization of pallet quality of various materials, standardization of pallet inspection methods and identification techniques, standardization of pallet operations, unitization of pallets and palletization of pallets. Domestic and international common use and size coordination and rationalization of pallets and logistics facilities, equipment, transportation vehicles, containers, etc. Pallet standardization is the core of logistics palletization, and it is the premise and foundation of logistics palletization. Without pallet standardization, it is impossible to achieve logistics palletization, and there is no fast, efficient, and low-cost modern logistics.
Current status of pallet standardization:
At present, the logistics standardization work in most countries around the world is still in the initial stage, but the pallet standardization, which is the basis of logistics palletization, has made great progress due to the large amount of pallets used, the high frequency of use, and the wide range of use. According to statistics, the United States has 1.5 to 2 billion pallets, Japan has about 700 to 800 million pallets, and my country, which has just started the logistics industry, also has hundreds of millions of pallets, and most industries in social production and circulation have a large number of them to varying degrees. Use trays. International Organization for Standardization-Pallet Standardization Technical Committee (IO/TC51) is a specialized organization for the preparation and revision of international pallet standards. In the ISO6780 standard promulgated in 2003, six international pallet standards were introduced. Among them, 1200mm×800mm is commonly used in Europe. For pallets with two specifications of 1200mm×1000mm, the US mainly uses 40 inches×48 inches, and Australia uses 140mm×1140mm and 1067mm×1067mm. Asian countries, especially Japan and South Korea, respectively in 1970 And in 1973, 1100mm×1100mm (T11) specification pallets were vigorously promoted as national standard pallets. At present, Australia has the highest utilization rate of standardized pallets at 95%; the United States is 55%; Europe is 70%; Japan is the highest in Asia, with a utilization rate of 35%; South Korea is 26.7%. my country has established the China Logistics Standardization Technical Committee and the Pallet Professional Committee of the China Federation of Logistics and Purchasing (hereinafter referred to as the two sessions). After the establishment of the two sessions, a number of national logistics standards were formulated, such as the 'Digital Warehouse Application System Specification', 'Logistics Enterprise Classification and Evaluation Index', etc., and also with the international pallet use countries, especially with Japan and South Korea, two neighboring pallet countries It has conducted extensive and in-depth exchanges and cooperation, and has done a lot of work for the development of my country's pallet industry. However, the two sessions have not yet formulated my country's own national standards for pallets, but have applied the international standards established by ISO/TC51.
There are dozens of pallet specifications currently in circulation in the society in my country, including two specifications of 1100mm×1100mm and 1200mm×1000mm. The main problems facing logistics palletization The biggest problem of my country's logistics system is low efficiency and high cost. The large-scale use of standardized pallets will facilitate the unitization of pallet assembly and the implementation of consistent pallet operations, which will help connect the sizes of shelves, logistics equipment, transportation vehicles and containers, thereby promoting the development of logistics palletization, reducing logistics costs, and improving logistics efficiency .
Since its establishment in 2001, the Pallet Professional Committee of the China Federation of Logistics and Purchasing has conducted extensive and in-depth investigations and studies on the current situation of pallets in my country. The survey shows that there are the following major problems in my country's logistics palletization work:
1. There are as many as several kinds of pallet specifications in our country, and the size of the logistics transportation commodity unit is different, which is extremely chaotic. Pallet users often customize pallets according to their own product packaging designs, while pallet manufacturers produce on orders. This is a phenomenon of turning the cart before the horse, making the existing pallet specifications in our country confused and difficult to unify. Pallet-based commodity units are the most important operation unit in the logistics system. Due to the different sizes of commodities and their packaging, the specifications of the pallets carrying commodities are also uneven, and the pallet specifications are chaotic. It is difficult to form a uniform after loading the commodities. unit. The pallet specifications are not compatible with transportation vehicles, warehouses, containers, etc., resulting in low loading rates of various transportation vehicles, loading rates of loading and unloading equipment, and storage facilities space utilization rate. The efficiency cannot be achieved. At the same time, it also increases ineffective operations and reduces speed. , The rising cost has affected the efficiency and competitiveness of logistics. The problem of small pallets and their specifications has become a bottleneck in reducing costs and improving efficiency in my country's logistics industry. In 1960, Japan had nearly a thousand specifications of non-standard pallets, which caused it to have a hard time in pallet standardization. Its experience and lessons are worth learning.
2. Inconsistent understanding in the selection and determination of pallet specifications is not conducive to the implementation of pallet standardization as soon as possible. At present, the industry has different opinions on the selection and determination of the specifications of pallets. Some advocate the use of rectangular shapes and some advocate the use of rectangular shapes. The reason for advocating the use of square pallets (T11) is: my country is a large international trade country, and foreign trade transportation generally uses container shipping. Only T11 pallets can achieve the best match with shipping containers, and then achieve precise and efficient logistics. The point of view that advocates the use of rectangular pallets (1200mm×1000mm, 1210 type for short) is: Most of the existing enterprises in China use the 1210 type pallet size as the corporate standard; many foreign-funded enterprises investing in China are in order to integrate into the Chinese market and reduce logistics costs. They abandon the original pallet usage habits and switch to 1210 pallets; in addition, T11 pallets are only used more in Japan and South Korea, and are rarely used in other countries or regions in the world. For example, choosing T11 pallets will only benefit China and Japan. The two countries have formed a shared system, but there are many shortcomings. For example, it is extremely difficult to change the related equipment that is currently used in large quantities in the country to match the 1210 pallet, which is not conducive to the formation of more countries or regions outside of Japan and South Korea. Unified pallet system; T11 pallet forklift access is not as convenient as 1210 pallet.
3. my country has not yet built a nationwide pallet sharing system, which is not conducive to the development of logistics palletization. Since manufacturers cannot recycle the empty pallets that are sent to all directions with the goods, most of the pallets of the majority of enterprises in my country are turnover within the enterprise, especially for domestic products. There are almost no pallets in the circulation process. When the products are shipped, the goods on the pallets must be shipped Load the truck one by one, unload the goods when they arrive at the destination, put them on the pallet of the other party, and then put them on the shelves. The products of the enterprise have undergone multiple pallet changes, which has increased the ineffective manual handling and loading and unloading operations, greatly reducing work efficiency, and making the products vulnerable to damage during the circulation and transfer process; in order to cope with the barbarous loading and unloading in the circulation and transfer process, some companies desperately To improve the compressive strength of packaging cartons, double-corrugated paper replaces single-corrugated paper, and the paper weight is very high, but it still cannot solve the problem. Product circulation costs continue to rise, and product competitiveness continues to decline. Therefore, the pallet should be delivered to the end user together with the goods (called the pallet container unit), instead of repeatedly inverting the pallet in the middle (called the consistent pallet operation), to reduce invalid operations, reduce logistics costs, and improve logistics efficiency and competitiveness. However, the consistent operation of pallets has caused the pallets used to be unable to be recycled, and its value has become a logistics cost issue for manufacturers: because my country currently does not have a national-level pallet sharing system, the problem of pallet recovery and recycling cannot be solved, which further reduces logistics Cost difficulties have seriously hindered the progress of logistics palletization.
4. my country uses a large amount of wooden pallets, wastes forest resources seriously, and does not meet the requirements of the scientific development concept. Survey data shows that the total number of existing pallets in my country is no less than 100 million, and the actual usage is much higher than this figure. Among them, wooden pallets account for about 90%, plastic pallets account for about 8%, and steel pallets. Plastic wood pallets and other material pallets only account for about 2%. A mature tree can only make 6 standard pallets, and the tree growth cycle is very long. Therefore, the large-scale use of wooden pallets in my country has led to a huge waste of forest resources. With emphasis on sustainable development today, palletizing logistics at the cost of wasting a lot of forest resources is not advisable.
Countermeasures for pallet standardization
1. The government, industry organizations, academia, and industry will work together to promote the promulgation of national standards for pallets as soon as possible, and strive to achieve logistics support as soon as possible. The formulation of national standards for pallets and the realization of palletization of logistics is a huge system project for the government, industry organizations, and academia. The industry should work together to accomplish this.
First of all, the government or industry organizations should organize the participation of academia and industry to select one or two standard pallet specifications within the scope of international standards. There is no need to propose specifications other than the above six specifications. Because countries or regions all over the world are promoting their own traditional pallet specifications, rather than using the six specifications together, the standard pallet specifications should be carefully selected based on the principles of scientificity, foresight, and compliance with my country's national conditions.
Secondly, the government or industry organizations should formulate corresponding laws, regulations or other regulations based on my country's current situation to promote the actual mass use of standard pallets. As the use rate of standard pallets continues to increase, dozens of coexisting pallet specifications will gradually decrease.
Third, on the basis of standard pallet size specifications, gradually adjust the relevant dimensions of logistics facilities, equipment, transportation vehicles, etc., and strive to establish a logistics palletization system as soon as possible, which in turn will promote the wider use of standard pallets and realize the overall The volume has increased significantly, further narrowing the gap between Chinese and foreign logistics in terms of cost and efficiency.
2. Implement consistent pallet operations and improve logistics operations. The basic purpose of formulating national standards for pallets is to implement consistent pallet operations, so that unnecessary inverting, stacking, stacking, loading and unloading, handling and other invalid operations no longer occur, greatly reducing logistics costs and improving logistics operations. The implementation of consistent pallet operations requires the joint promotion of all parties involved.
3. Establish a national-level pallet sharing system as soon as possible to solve the problem of pallet recycling in the consistent pallet operation. According to the experience of developed countries in the logistics industry, to recover pallets and recycle them, we must rely on social forces to build a shared pallet recycling system. The foreign pallet sharing system is operated by a pallet company, which has a certain number of pallets, and has established pallet collection points across the country to be responsible for pallet recycling and maintenance. Companies that use pallets can rent the required number of pallets from the pallet company. The pallet container unit shipped from the factory can be delivered to the final receiving location in its original state. After the user takes the goods on the pallet, the empty pallet is returned to the nearest pallet for recycling Stand and pay the corresponding rent. Companies that use pallets do not have to purchase a large number of pallets, eliminating the trouble of storing, managing and maintaining pallets. It can be seen that the pallet sharing system can not only effectively ensure the consistent implementation of pallet operations, but also use pallets rationally. For the recycling of pallets used for long-distance international transportation, it is best to use disposable pallets because of the high cost. Because of their low price, the cost can be evenly shared in the freight rate. Due to the long distance, this sharing is very cost-effective. The establishment of a pallet sharing system requires a lot of investment, and the payback period is long, and it must be determined according to the number of pallets operated. Therefore, the establishment of a pallet sharing system in my country should be realized by the state, enterprises, financial institutions, and interested individuals jointly investing in the establishment of a joint-stock company.
4. Formulate other relevant regulations and standards, and improve the logistics palletization system. After the standardization of pallet size specifications, a series of related standards and regulations such as pallet manufacturing material standards, various material pallet quality standards, pallet testing methods and identification technical standards, pallet operation standards, etc., need to be formulated as soon as possible, and relevant research and Establishment of executive agency. Issues such as the research and development of pallet manufacturing equipment and pallet operation-related equipment are the necessary content and guarantee for perfecting logistics palletization. It needs to be pointed out that with the advancement of technology, plastic-wood pallets made of waste plastics, rice husks, and wood chips have a good cost performance. From the perspective of sustainable development and saving forest resources, my country should vigorously promote the production and use of plastic-wood pallets. Reducing the production and use of wooden pallets is beneficial to the country, the people, and the enterprise. Pallets are the most commonly used loading, unloading and handling equipment in modern logistics, and pallet standardization is one of the key foundations for palletizing logistics. my country should learn from foreign experience. While actively adopting ISO standards, it should formulate and revise feasible national standards for pallets as soon as possible to promote the healthy development of logistics palletization in my country.