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【Abstract】With the accelerating development of international trade activities in recent years, the demand for international logistics is also increasing. The article introduces the characteristics of various modes of transportation, and proposes suggestions on the selection and application of international logistics management and transportation modes based on actual cases.
[Keywords] international logistics; management; mode of transportation; choice of logistics
As the name implies, it is the flow of goods. Transportation is the basis of logistics, and the purpose of logistics is to deliver the goods to the destination efficiently and at low cost within a specified time and under the premise of ensuring the quality of the goods. There are many options for cargo transportation in terms of transportation, for example, railway, waterway, aviation, multimodal transportation, etc. Various transportation methods are also pros and cons. This requires comprehensive consideration of various factors and targets different ones. Circumstances and requirements Choosing a reasonable mode of transportation is a key link and basic guarantee in the completion of international logistics work.
1 Railway transportation and its characteristics and applications
1.1 Characteristics of railway transportation
Railway transportation is a special mode of transportation that uses vehicles to transport goods on the railway and is pulled by locomotives. Railway transportation is mainly responsible for the transportation of long-distance and large-volume goods, including vehicle transportation, LTL transportation and container transportation. Railway transportation mainly uses gondola, flatbed, concave, clamp, and traveling vehicles.
1.2 Advantages and disadvantages of railway transportation
1.2.1 Advantages of railway transportation
The biggest advantage of railway transportation is its large transportation volume. Due to the increase in transportation volume, its transportation cost is lower than other transportation methods. Railway transportation generally has low requirements for packaging of goods. Because railways are affected by weather It is very small and can be transported around the clock regardless of seasons. The laying of railways is deterministic. The time and location of cargo transportation and the connection between railways are also very accurate. The safety factor is large and the risk is higher than other The mode of transportation is small.
1.2.2 Disadvantages of railway transportation
Due to the certainty of its own choice of road sections, railway transportation also reduces the flexibility of transportation accordingly. It is greatly affected by the railway network. At the same time, the preparation work for the corresponding transportation sections and transportation of goods is also compared before the start of railway transportation. Complexity. In order to control the cost of railway transportation, the efficiency of departure is relatively low. As railway transportation passes through multiple stations, each station needs to be regrouped, so the transportation speed becomes relatively slow and the cycle is relatively long (except for special trains) ).
1.3 Application of railway transportation
Different transportation methods are required for different requirements, and railway transportation is widely used. In the Kazakhstan project of China Water Resources and Hydropower Tenth Engineering Bureau Co., Ltd., the international combined transportation method is adopted. Take KC31 as an example. The departure station in Langfang, China passes through different countries and large and small stations during transportation. , After many marshalling, finally arrived at the terminal Eba; not only in international transportation, in daily life, such as online shopping, in most cases, rail transportation is also used.
2 Road transportation and its characteristics and applications
2.1 Characteristics of road transportation
Road transportation mainly refers to the transportation mode of cargo transportation using various vehicles. The transportation volume is relatively small and the transportation distance is relatively short. However, the flexibility is more flexible than railways, and it can reach railways and Ocean。
2.2 Advantages and disadvantages of road transportation
2.2.1 Advantages of road transportation
The way of road transportation mainly relies on roads and vehicles. It is highly flexible and can reach most places as long as there is a road. This is where other modes of transportation cannot match. Road transportation can realize "door-to-door" direct transportation. There is no need to pass through large and small platforms and multiple groups like railway transportation, and no transshipment is required.
2.2.2 Disadvantages of road transportation
Road transportation mainly relies on vehicle transportation. Due to its own limitations, its cargo capacity is relatively small, and it is relatively affected by weather and road conditions. Due to the small transportation volume, the transportation cost is correspondingly increased, and it is not suitable for long-distance transportation. For oversized cargo, it is necessary to investigate the impact of special factors such as road sections, culverts, and height restrictions in advance. Passes need to be obtained when passing through multiple cities.
2.3 Application of road transportation
As far as the company's projects in Laos and Myanmar are concerned, road transportation is indeed the main mode of transportation at present. Domestic logistics companies will concentrate the goods needed for the Laos and Myanmar projects at Mohan Port in Yunnan, China and Jiejiao Port in Ruili, Yunnan, respectively. After the freight forwarders of each section have completed the domestic customs clearance and overseas customs formalities, they will be transported by road. The materials needed for the project and already at the port were smoothly transported to the destination through the road.
2.4 Matters needing attention in road transportation
The way of road transportation is relatively less affected by the environment and other aspects. However, in actual life, there are still many issues that need to be considered. For example, in order to protect the flatness of road sections, many places will set "high limit" in many places. If vehicles pass between regions and provinces, a certain amount of tolls need to be paid. These are all factors that need to be considered. Also, due to the different items being transported, the degree of damage to the vehicle is not the same, which will lead to transportation The increase in cost is a problem that needs to be considered in advance.
3 ocean transportation and its characteristics and applications
3.1 Features of ocean transportation
Waterway transportation is mainly based on the transportation advantages of ships, freighters and other means of transporting goods in the ocean, rivers, rivers, etc. The number of transported goods is the largest compared with other transportation vehicles of the same volume. Large ships can transport more than tens of thousands of tons. Goods.
3.2 Advantages and disadvantages of ocean transportation
3.2.1 Advantages of ocean transportation
Compared with other transportation methods, ocean transportation is the largest transportation method in terms of transportation capacity and transportation cost. Because water transportation relies on the existing rivers and oceans, the cost in the initial investment is relatively low. In addition, In the transportation process, the cargo ship can bear more than tens of thousands of tons of loading, and the transportation capacity and transportation cost are in a superior position.
3.2.2 Disadvantages of ocean transportation
Water transportation relies on the ocean, rivers, etc. Because of the influence of these natural factors, the initial cost input is indeed reduced, but it is precisely because of these reasons that the limitations of water transportation have greatly increased. The main shortcomings of waterway transportation are the slow transportation speed, the impact of the port's capacity to handle cargo, and the inability to transport cargo in bad weather.
3.3 Application of ocean transportation
In practical applications, ocean transportation is mainly divided into container transportation and bulk cargo ship transportation. Container transportation refers to the use of large containers such as containers as carriers to assemble the goods into a container unit, so that large-scale loading and unloading machinery and large-scale trucks can be used in the modern circulation field to carry out loading and unloading, handling operations and completing transportation tasks, so as to realize the cargo" A new, high-efficiency and high-efficiency transportation method of "door-to-door" transportation. Using container transportation, it can be shipped directly from the warehouse to the consignee's warehouse, avoiding intermediate cargo loading and unloading. The transportation of bulk cargo ships is mainly used for short-distance ocean transportation such as large-scale equipment, bulk cargo and materials. Carry oversized equipment, bulk cargo and cargo not suitable for containers. The cargo transported by bulk carrier is not affected by the shape and weight. You can choose a closer port and ship that suits your requirements.
3.4 Precautions for ocean transportation
In the process of water transportation, the "water vapor" factor is relatively large, and may also make the goods transported get damp. Therefore, before the start of the transportation, you should choose the appropriate transportation method. It is very sensitive to the moisture. That said, it is not recommended to choose the transportation mode of water transportation.
4 Air transportation and its characteristics and applications
4.1 Characteristics of air transportation
Air transportation is a mode of transportation that carries cargo with aircraft as the main body. If the helicopter direct transportation method is used, no large initial capital investment is required. If the civil aircraft transportation is adopted, in addition to the construction of the runway, other initial capital investment is very small.
4.2 Pros and cons of air transportation
4.2.1 Advantages of air transportation
Airplanes are one of the relatively fast transportation vehicles in daily life. Goods transportation using airplanes as carriers can increase the transportation speed of goods, reduce the time required for goods transportation, ensure the quality of the goods, and reduce the loss of the goods.
4.2.2 Disadvantages of air transportation
In most cases, air transportation is generally not used. The amount of cargo transported by airplane is relatively small, and the transportation cost is also relatively high. In addition, air transportation has relatively high safety requirements. For more dangerous items such as flammable, explosive, corrosive, radioactive, magnetic, and pressure vessels, it is not allowed to be consigned, and it is subject to more restrictions.
4.3 Application of air transportation
The advantages of air transportation are short periodicity and fast time. It is the best transportation method for some urgently needed goods or goods with a short shelf life such as flowers and medicines. For example, in the country's large-scale process construction, some small, high-density, high-priced equipment is urgently needed, or for the transportation of medicines, air transportation is more appropriate.
5 Multimodal transport and its characteristics and applications
5.1 The characteristics of multimodal transport
Multimodal transportation refers to the transportation process in which the relevant person in charge sends the goods from the designated receiving place to the designated receiving place. It uses multiple transportation methods such as railways and roads to cooperate with each other. Multimodal transportation is a higher level. The optimized transportation method can greatly improve transportation efficiency and reduce transportation costs. The person in charge and the shipper sign a contract to implement one-stop service and be responsible for the entire transportation of goods.
5.2 Advantages and disadvantages of multimodal transport
5.2.1 Advantages of multimodal transport
Multimodal transport is a form of intermodal transport organization that aims to achieve the optimal benefit of the overall transportation of goods. It usually uses containers as the transport unit and organically combines different modes of transportation to form a continuous and comprehensive integrated cargo transportation. Railway transportation is less affected by the weather and is suitable for long-distance cargo transportation; road transportation has high flexibility and can realize the "door-to-door" transportation mode; water transportation has large carrying capacity and low cost; air transportation has a short cycle and can be realized Fast transportation of goods.
5.2.2 Disadvantages of multimodal transport
The main disadvantage of multimodal transportation lies in the complexity of the choice of various modes of transportation. It requires relevant staff to do sufficient preliminary work to realize the connection of various modes of transportation and ensure the normal operation of transportation.
5.3 Application of multi-modal combination
Multimodal transport has been recognized internationally and has also begun to be implemented internationally. For example: The Niger Heavy Oil Power Generation Project in Africa, where power generation equipment and other materials come from Europe, international multimodal transportation can ensure that the goods arrive at the designated location in the shortest time with quality and quantity.
5.4 Precautions for multimodal transport
The advantage of multimodal transport is that it can minimize costs and ensure that the goods arrive at the designated place at the right time. This requires the relevant staff to have good coordination skills to ensure that there are no gaps in each link. Only in this way can the logistics work be completed efficiently and smoothly.
In summary, in order to do a good job in international logistics management and the selection and application of multiple modes of transportation, it is necessary for staff to do the preliminary preparations, transportation optimization plans and emergency pre-risk work. The influence of various factors such as cargo category, time, location, etc. should be fully considered. Under the premise of satisfying various requirements, a mode of transportation with low cost, high efficiency and high safety factor should be selected.
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