Dangerous Factors and Countermeasures of Dangerous
Due to the special physical and chemical properties of dangerous goods, ICAO has strict regulations on a series of documents and packaging required for civil air transportation. The safe transportation of dangerous goods by civil aviation is of great significance for ensuring aviation safety. It is necessary to vigorously strengthen the safety supervision of dangerous goods transportation. This has become the consensus of the civil aviation authorities of various countries.
1. Analysis of the present situation of my country's civil aviation dangerous goods transportation
my country's management in this area is relatively weak. For a long time, domestic civil air transportation of dangerous goods has been banned. The Civil Aviation Administration of China issued the 'Regulations on the Administration of the Transportation of Dangerous Goods in Civil Aviation of China' by Order No. 48 on February 27, 1996. The regulations are clear: if a civil aircraft carries dangerous goods as specified in the “List of Dangerous Goods in Civil Aviation of China”, it shall be reported to the General Administration of Civil Aviation of China for examination and approval, and regulations for examination and approval shall be formulated separately.
In recent years, with the development of the national economy, trade between countries has become more frequent, which has led to the vigorous development of the civil air cargo market, and the domestic demand for dangerous goods transportation is increasingly strong. During the organization, experts translated nearly 300,000 words of the ICAO document 'Technical Rules for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air' (Doc9284-AN/905), inspected and verified the international advanced management system, and organized industry insiders to repeatedly discuss the draft regulations The purpose is to formulate practical management regulations to scientifically and effectively manage and standardize the current situation of China's civil aviation transportation of dangerous goods.
'China Civil Aviation Dangerous Goods Transportation Management Regulations' (Civil Aviation Administration Order No. 121) was formally implemented on September 1, 2004. The regulations are formulated in accordance with the “Civil Aviation Law of the People’s Republic of China” and the “Decision of the State Council on the Establishment of Administrative Licenses for Administrative Approval Projects That Must Be Reserved” (Order No. 412 of the State Council), which includes 12 chapters and 64 articles. This provision fully meets the requirements of Annex 18 of the International Civil Aviation Convention, and uses the ICAO document 'Technical Rules for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air' (Doc9284-AN/905) as a technical support document, some of which are adopted by the United States, Australia and Canada The advanced management systems and experience of other countries have also emphasized the current status and development direction of China's dangerous goods civil aviation transportation, and they are highly targeted. Its purpose is to ensure that the management of civil air transportation of dangerous goods in my country is gradually integrated with international standards on the basis of orderly development, and that feasibility and advanced are equally important.
Second, the analysis of dangerous factors of civil aviation dangerous goods transportation
Dangerous factors for the transportation of dangerous goods in civil aviation mainly involve two major aspects, namely the risk factors for the hazard itself and related personnel, which are discussed in detail below:
1. Analysis of dangerous factors of dangerous goods
Dangerous goods refer to the characteristics of flammable, explosive, corrosive, toxic, radioactive (magnetic) in civil air transportation, which may endanger people's health or damage transportation equipment and others during transportation, loading, unloading and storage. Substances or products that have lost property or have an impact on the environment. In the course of civil air transportation of dangerous goods, nine types of dangerous goods are usually involved, namely the first category: explosives; the second category: compressed gases; the third category: flammable liquids; the fourth category: flammable solids, spontaneous combustion Substances, substances that release flammable gases in contact with water; category 5: oxidants and organic peroxides; category 6: toxic and infectious substances; category 7: radioactive substances; category 8: corrosive substances; category 9 : Miscellaneous dangerous goods, including some magnetic substances, etc.
Due to the special physical and chemical properties of dangerous goods, the packaging and transportation conditions of dangerous goods must be strictly controlled. However, during the transportation of dangerous goods in civil aviation, the air pressure, temperature, and temperature often change or are restricted by space. As a result, explosion, spontaneous combustion, toxic gas leakage, etc. are most likely to occur, causing damage to aircraft, life, and cargo.
2. Analysis of risk factors of related personnel
Recently, the Civil Aviation Administration found many incidents in which freight forwarding companies mistakenly received dangerous goods, which seriously endangered aviation safety. Although these incidents were properly handled in a timely manner and did not cause serious damage, the potential hidden dangers were very serious. The reasons for analysis are as follows:
On the one hand, it has direct contact with the relevant operators of freight forwarders or freight companies. For example, its dangerous goods knowledge and skills are solid, and its sense of responsibility is not strong, but it also reflects the defects of our freight forwarders or freight companies in the organization and management of dangerous goods.
On the other hand, it is the customer's reason. Some customers conceal dangerous goods for various ulterior purposes. If the freight company is not careful, it will be involved in a whirlpool suspected of concealing dangerous goods, which will cause the company's credibility, economy and business to be extremely adversely affected. According to analysis, there are four types of customers who ship dangerous goods as ordinary goods: ignorance type, intentional type and malicious type.
(1) Ignorant type
The name declared by the customer is an ordinary item, that is, it is not known that it is a dangerous item, such as hair spray, mousse, lighter, etc.
(2) Negligent type
The name of the product declared by the customer is a common chemical product, and the dangerous goods were sent as ordinary goods by mistake. Some are whole-wholesale goods, some are wrong goods, and some are mixed with individual dangerous goods. For the wrongly sent dangerous goods, if the freight company can achieve the meticulous and careful check of the uniformity of the goods and the goods, it is possible to find anomalies, because in this case, the customer is inadvertently sending the goods by mistake, the goods are packaged The name, mark, and mark on the dangerous goods on the document must not correspond to the name, mark, and mark on the document. As long as the receiver of the freight company carefully checks the label, mark, and document on the package of the goods, they can be found in time. The order and the goods do not match, so as to avoid the mixing of dangerous goods and in order to prevent the mixing of individual dangerous goods, it is necessary to carry out a case-by-case review, a case-by-case review, and no omission. (Editor's Note: 'Mark' is a Chinese translation of English Mark, which refers to the mark made on the outside of the packaging of the goods and also refers to the trademark).
(3) Intentional type
In order to avoid the cumbersome examination procedures and high costs of dangerous goods transportation, the customer intends to declare it under the name of ordinary chemical products. At this time, the inspection report attached by the customer must be the non-hazardous conclusions made by the relevant inspection agency for the declared common chemical products. If the relevant department requires a new technical evaluation, the customer will send the sample prepared in advance to the inspection Therefore, the dangerous goods were shipped out with the differentiation of ordinary chemical products.
(4) Malicious type
In the current situation of frequent international terrorist activities, freight companies have to guard against the possibility of terrorist forces using air cargo to commit crimes. The Lockerbie air crash in 1988 and the '9.11' incident in 2001 were all typical cases of international terrorism, and the consequences were extremely severe. Transport companies must first be vigilant to prevent terrorists from using lax censorship and negligence in handover to commit terrorist crimes.
3. Civil Aviation Dangerous Goods Transportation Safety Countermeasures
The transportation of civil aviation dangerous goods has just started in China. Although there are relevant regulations, it is still not perfect. If the freight company wants to carry out this business, it still needs to do a lot of work to achieve the safety of civil aviation dangerous goods transportation. The author believes that the following matters need to be noted:
1. Popularize knowledge about dangerous goods
Civil aviation dangerous goods transportation is still a new thing in my country. Many people know the knowledge of dangerous goods. Therefore, it is particularly important to increase the publicity and education of dangerous goods knowledge. It is necessary to let all relevant personnel understand the dangers of dangerous goods from the perspective of ideas. Not only the relevant personnel of the freight company must be well aware of the relevant knowledge of dangerous goods, but more importantly, it is necessary to let customers understand the relevant knowledge of dangerous goods: the dangerous characteristics of the dangerous goods themselves, the relevant procedures for the declaration of dangerous goods, the relevant regulations on the transportation of dangerous goods and the relevant legal responsibilities Wait. Let customers understand the relevant knowledge of dangerous goods, so that they can transport dangerous goods according to the correct procedures, and they will fire the hidden dangers of civil aviation dangerous goods transportation from the source. This is the best solution for this type of ignorant customers.
2. Strengthen job training
Post training can strengthen the understanding of the hazards of dangerous goods and the ability to identify dangerous goods. Hire a safety officer to provide general education on the hazards and common sense of the transportation of dangerous goods to all sales and operating personnel of the company, so that the company has consciously realized the dangers of dangerous goods transportation to the country, the harm to the company, and individuals should be responsible for this Responsibility. Experts are hired to train orders and warehouse custodians for basic knowledge such as chemical product knowledge and special product identification and characteristics, such as pharmaceuticals, to improve employees' ability to distinguish special goods. Train the receivers of the warehouse to recognize the basic English letters, so that they can correctly distinguish the differences in the names and marks on the documents and the packaging of the goods.
3. Strengthen system management
Formulate a series of rules and regulations prohibiting the reception of dangerous goods to clarify the responsibilities of various professional positions and the methods of handling violations of responsibilities. The provisions for sales personnel should include the content of expulsion, economic and criminal punishment if the sales personnel collude maliciously with customers to conceal dangerous goods; the provisions for the operator should include if the operator violates the operating rules, leaks The inspection of dangerous goods shall be subject to penalties such as warnings, fines, and post adjustments; the provisions of the operating procedures shall include every link in the operation of chemical products, the determination of the person responsible for each link, etc.
4. Strengthen supervision and inspection
Freight companies also need to conduct a comprehensive inspection of orders, receipts, and inspections from an operational perspective to strengthen the monitoring of whether the operation process is standardized. Check whether the order-receiving personnel carefully check the declaration letter of attorney, packing list, trade contract, issuance, and marks submitted by the customer; check whether the goods-receiving personnel carefully check the marks and marks on the package of the goods, especially the product mark verification 3. Whether the verification of product name is strict; for products that cannot be judged, whether the customer is required to provide the technical appraisal of the authoritative department, and whether the sample to be inspected is extracted from the physical goods of the consignment; for products that cannot be sampled due to packaging problems, etc., Whether to inform customers to handle delivery by themselves; etc.
5. Strengthen legal awareness and act in accordance with law
From a legal perspective, for customers entrusted to transport dangerous goods (mainly chemical products), customers are required to issue original guarantee letters, or sign agreements with customers to ship chemical products, and set up laws to hold customers accountable in writing. in accordance with. The customer must cover in the letter of guarantee or agreement that if the chemical products consigned by the customer are undeclared dangerous goods, all consequences and damages to the shipping company or third party caused by the liability shall be compensated.
In summary, for the transportation of dangerous goods, freight companies must have a strong sense of safety, always maintain a high degree of vigilance and consciousness, pay attention to the hazards of dangerous goods from the ideology, and stipulate the rules for the transportation of dangerous goods from the system In terms of operation, the process of dangerous goods transportation, legally set constraints on customers, and comprehensively prevent the risks of dangerous goods transportation, so that freight companies can develop in a standardized, orderly, healthy, and sustainable manner.