Development status of fresh logistics, coexistence
Development status of fresh logistics, coexistence
People in the consumption upgrade attach great importance to the health and freshness of food, and the fresh produce industry has developed rapidly in this tide. In terms of freshness, time is life, and a delay of one minute will increase mortality and drag down corporate profits. Therefore, the timeliness of logistics and distribution is an industry barrier for new entrants, and it is also the key to determining the success of fresh food companies. So, what is the current status of the development of fresh food logistics in China? Let's explore this article together.
The existing independent cold-chain fresh logistics network in China is mostly a production-supply-sales one-integrated model or self-sufficient in a specific area, while the national cold-chain logistics system has not yet been fully formed, although on the mainline There is a certain foundation, but the same city transit and last-km cold chain distribution are still in the exploration stage. There are not many third-party cold chain logistics companies that can provide suitable services in the market, and the optional range of service prices, distribution scope, and cold chain operations that can meet the requirements is even narrower. At present, China's fresh produce logistics mainly presents the following development characteristics:
First, the scale of cold chain logistics output increased steadily
With the strong rise of e-commerce, fresh products have further penetrated the Chinese consumer market. According to statistics from the China Federation of Logistics and Purchasing, the scale of fresh e-commerce transactions reached 56 billion yuan in 2015, and imported fruits, beef, and seafood showed explosive growth. In 2016, the total import and export volume of fresh agricultural products exceeded 20 million tons, about four times that of 2000, accounting for about 20% of the global ocean refrigerated transport volume.
The proportion of cold chain logistics has gradually increased. From 2010 to 2016, the cold chain circulation rate of fruits, vegetables, meat, and aquatic products rose from 5%, 15%, 23% to 22%, 34%, and 41%, respectively; the refrigerated transport rates were respectively 15%, 30%, and 40% Rose to 35%, 57%, 69%.
With the increase in the size of ships, the capacity of reefer shipping containers has been continuously improved, and the construction of cold storage infrastructure in coastal ports centered on Dalian Port, Tianjin Port, Qingdao Port, Ningbo Port, and Shanghai Port has been gradually improved.
With the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, the 2010 Shanghai World Expo and the rapid development of e-commerce in recent years, cold chain logistics companies have continued to emerge. In 2010, Sinotrans, COFCO, Shuanghui, Guangming and other enterprises have risen; international cold chain companies such as China Merchants Joint Venture Meilan and Mitsui's investment in Jinjiang Cryogenic have successively entered the Chinese market.
In 2012, Jingdong Mall, No. 1 Store, and Gongshe, etc., have successively tested the water-cooled chain logistics business, and the emerging cold-chain format has emerged. Fresh food e-commerce has developed rapidly in 2013. According to incomplete statistics, China currently has more than 10,000 traditional cold-chain logistics companies, more than 4,000 cold-chain logistics fresh-ware e-commerce companies, and total cold-chain logistics in excess of one trillion yuan.
Second, the competition of fresh chain e-commerce cold chain logistics operation capabilities
Cold Chain Logistics refers to cross-sector, cross-sector, cross-sector, cross-sector, cross-sector, A systematic project across industries and regions is characterized by multiple links and long supply chains.
For fresh food e-commerce, cold chain logistics service capability is the basis for business development, indicating that it has the ability to deliver fresh products to customers. This is just a ticket to enter this market. Whether it can survive and develop in the market depends on how well the company operates.
In the warehousing sector, the operational capabilities of cold chain logistics are mainly reflected in the operational efficiency of urban warehouses. In addition to the usual level of operational management capabilities, the capacity of urban warehouses is also reflected in the quantity and ability to handle different product specifications. The city warehouse aggregates a variety of fresh products, and its main function is processing, that is, after the fresh products are shipped to the city warehouse, they must be sorted, packed, and distributed according to the order. Because different fresh food e-commerce operators have different operating varieties and different order characteristics, their operating processes are also different. The more products the fresh-food e-commerce company operates, the higher the complexity of its warehouse processing operations. The operational capability of this link can be said to be one of the core competitiveness of the enterprise. Its capabilities need to be explored, cultivated and accumulated gradually, and cannot be easily copied.
There are many problems in the development of fresh logistics
1. The third-party logistics service cannot be in place, and the degree of marketization is low: transporting perishable goods is different from ordinary goods. To effectively operate fresh logistics and achieve the purpose of optimal storage of goods, a complete fresh logistics chain must be established. Strict temperature control and packaging. When transferring perishable goods, they should not be affected by temperature and humidity. All of these require sophisticated transportation equipment and professional logistics management mechanisms to effectively complete the preservation of goods and economic benefits of transportation. Most of the fresh food distribution in the country is completed by manufacturers and distributors. The development of third-party logistics in the food chain is lagging behind, and the service network and information system are not complete enough, which greatly affects the quality and accuracy of food logistics in transit. And timeliness. At the same time, the cost of the food chain and the consumption of goods are high.
2. The fresh logistics infrastructure is seriously backward and transportation losses are huge: fewer vehicles, and most of the perishable goods are loaded in the open air rather than in cold storage and insulation places. Most fruits, vegetables, poultry, and aquatic products are used By truck. It can be seen that China's current fresh logistics facilities and fresh logistics facilities are inadequate, the original facilities and equipment are outdated, the development and distribution are not balanced, and it cannot provide a low temperature guarantee for the perishable food distribution system. Due to imperfect infrastructure, some third-party courier companies adopt cold chains before entering the warehouse, general distribution after leaving the warehouse, or adding dry ice or ice cubes after leaving the warehouse.
3. China currently lacks the last mile of cold chain automotive technology standards: 'Fresh food requires a full cold chain, and the trunk cold chain alone is not enough.' A fresh food e-commerce founder said. China currently lacks the last mile of cold-chain vehicle technology standards, which means that there are no models, many of which are retrofitted with other models, and passes are also a problem. For express delivery companies, as the fresh food e-commerce market is not yet mature and the user base is not large enough, the cost of building a full-scale cold chain logistics system is relatively high.
4. Inventory management difficulties: A person in charge of FMCG e-commerce revealed: 'For general fast-selling products, the accuracy of consumption forecast is 70%, which is good. Due to the long shelf life, inventory fluctuations will not bring much But the shelf life of fresh food is only a few days. If the loss is high, it is definitely a loss.
5. Large investment in logistics construction, but currently it is difficult to achieve economies of scale: At present, many fresh food e-commerce companies are taking the road of self-built logistics. This has to build a large number of cold storage in various places, to buy a large number of refrigerated trucks. But unless the scale of a single fresh food e-commerce company has already been very large (in recent years, this is almost impossible, because users are accustomed to go to the grocery market or supermarkets to buy fresh food, which is tentative for online shopping fresh food Stage, consumer habits need to be cultivated, so the size of the user base is still small), otherwise it will be difficult to maintain the operating costs of cold storage and refrigerated trucks.
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