The warehouse is a circulation center of the company's materials and a distribution center for logistics. In principle, all the materials circulation of an enterprise should go through the warehouse. Warehouses can be classified differently according to different standards. An enterprise can choose to build or rent different types of warehouses according to its own conditions. The following introduces the classification of warehouses.
I. Classification by Fire Hazard
1. Category A warehouse: liquid with flash point less than 28 ° C; gas with lower explosion limit less than 10%; substances that can decompose or oxidize in air at room temperature can cause rapid spontaneous combustion or explosion; water or water vapor in air Substances that can generate flammable gases and cause combustion or explosion; strong acids that are liable to cause combustion or explosion when exposed to acids, heat, impact, friction, catalysis, and organic or flammable inorganic substances such as sulfur; Substances that can cause combustion or explosion when rubbed or in contact with oxidants and organics; production in closed equipment with an operating temperature greater than or equal to the substance's own ignition point.
2. Category B warehouse: liquids with a flash point of 28 ° C or higher but less than 60 ° C; gases with a lower explosion limit of 10% or higher; oxidants not classified as Category A; chemically flammable hazardous solids not classified as Category A; combustion-supporting gases Floating dust, fiber, liquid droplets with flash point greater than or equal to 60 ° C which can form explosive mixture with air.
3. Category C warehouse: liquid with flash point 60 ° C or higher; combustible solid.
4. D-type warehouses: Processing of non-combustible materials, and the production of strong radiant heat, sparks or flames often occurs in high temperature or molten form; gas, liquid, solid as fuel or gas, liquid, solid as fuel or Combustion of gases and liquids for other uses is produced in various standardized plants; it is difficult to burn and produce immeasurable quantities at room temperature.
5. Type E warehouse: production of non-combustible materials at room temperature.
Classification by warehouse management system
Depending on the affiliation of the warehouse, it can be divided into the following categories:
1. Self-use warehouse: A self-use warehouse refers to a warehouse established by an enterprise for its own use. Such a warehouse is generally managed by the enterprise itself.
2. Public warehouse: This is a kind of warehouse that is professionally engaged in warehouse management and management. It is independent of other enterprises.
Classification by warehouse use
The warehouse can be divided into the following types according to its role in the circulation of goods:
1. Purchasing and supplying warehouses: Purchasing and supplying warehouses are mainly used for the centralized storage of goods purchased from the production department and for international import and export. Generally, this type of warehouse is located in large, medium-sized cities or commodities with relatively concentrated production The location of a transport hub.
2. Wholesale warehouses: Wholesale warehouses are mainly used to store goods imported from the procurement and supply depots or purchased locally. This type of warehouse is generally close to the commodity sales market, and the scale is generally smaller than that of the procurement and supply warehouses. Engaged in wholesale supply, and also engaged in demolition supply business.
3. Retail warehouses: Retail warehouses are mainly used for short-term storage for the commercial retail industry. Generally, they provide store sales. The scale of retail warehouses is small, and the stored materials have a fast turnover.
4. Reserve warehouses: These warehouses are generally set up by the state to keep national emergency reserves and combat readiness materials. The goods are generally stored in such warehouses for a relatively long time, and the stored materials are regularly updated to ensure the quality of the materials.
5. Transit warehouse: Intermediate warehouse is in the middle of the cargo transportation system. It stores the goods waiting for transshipment. Generally, the goods are only temporarily parked here. This type of warehouse is generally set up at roads, railway stations and ports for water transportation. Nearby so that the goods can be waited for shipment here.
6. Processing warehouse: Generally, a warehouse with product processing capabilities is called a processing warehouse.
7. Bonded warehouses: Bonded warehouses are warehouses that are set up on the territory of a country for the needs of international trade, but outside the customs border. The goods of foreign enterprises can enter and leave such warehouses without taxation and go through customs declaration procedures. After approval, they can process, store and other goods in bonded warehouses.
Four, according to the characteristics of the storage of goods
1. Raw material warehouse: The raw material warehouse is used to store the raw materials used in production. Such warehouses are generally large.
2. Product warehouse: The function of the product warehouse is to store the finished products, but these products have not yet entered the circulation area. Such warehouses are generally affiliated to product production factories.
3. Refrigerated warehouse: It is used to store those goods that need to be stored under refrigeration. Generally, it is mostly agricultural and sideline products, medicines, etc., which have requirements on storage temperature.
4. Constant temperature warehouse: Same as refrigerated warehouse, constant temperature warehouse is also used to store products that require storage temperature.
5. Dangerous goods warehouse: Dangerous goods warehouse is literally easier to understand that it is used to store dangerous goods. Because dangerous goods may cause danger to humans and the environment, there are generally specific requirements for the storage of such goods. For example, many chemical supplies are dangerous goods, and their storage has special regulations.
6. Water surface warehouse: For items that can float on the water, such as logs and bamboo rafts, they can be stored on the water.
Five, according to the structure of the warehouse
1. Single-storey warehouse: The single-storey warehouse is the most common and most widely used type of warehouse building. This storehouse has only one floor, so there is no need to set up stairs. Its main characteristics are: single-storey warehouse The design is simple and requires less investment; because the warehouse has only one floor, it is more convenient to move and load goods in the warehouse; various auxiliary equipment (such as ventilation equipment, water supply, power supply, etc.) are more convenient to install, use and maintain; Because there is only one floor, all the ground pressure capacity of the warehouse is relatively strong.
2. Multi-tier warehouse: There is a single-tier warehouse, which must correspond to a multi-tier warehouse. Multi-tier warehouses generally occupy a small area, and they are generally built in densely populated areas with high land use prices. Therefore, the goods are generally transported using vertical conveying equipment.
To sum up, the multilayer warehouse has the following characteristics:
Multi-storey warehouses can be adapted to a variety of different usage requirements. For example, the office and warehouse can be divided into two floors, which is more flexible in the overall warehouse layout;
The layered structure naturally isolates the warehouse from other departments, which is conducive to the safety and fire prevention of the warehouse; the technology for vertical transportation of heavy goods required for multi-storey warehouse operations has become increasingly mature;
Multi-story warehouses are generally built near urban areas. Because of their small footprint, construction costs can be controlled within an effective range. Therefore, multi-story warehouses are often used to store high value-added small goods for daily use in cities. .
The problem with using multi-storey warehouses is that the maintenance costs during construction and use are large, and the storage cost of general goods is high.
3. Three-dimensional warehouse: A three-dimensional warehouse is also called a high-bay warehouse. It is also a single-story warehouse, but it is different from a general single-story warehouse in that it uses high-level shelves to store goods instead of simply stacking goods on the warehouse floor. on,
In the three-dimensional warehouse, since the shelves are generally relatively high, the storage and retrieval of goods need to use the supporting mechanized and automated equipment. Generally, such warehouses are also automated warehouses when the storage equipment has a high degree of automation.
4. Simple warehouse: A simple warehouse is a closed warehouse for storing small particles or powdered goods in bulk. Generally, this warehouse is placed on an elevated shelf. For example, simple warehouses are often used to store grain, cement, and fertilizers.
5. Open-air storage yard: An open-air storage yard is a place for storing goods in the open air. Generally, the other party's bulk raw materials or goods that are not afraid of moisture.
Six, according to different classification of building materials
According to the different construction materials used in the warehouse, the warehouse can be divided into: reinforced concrete warehouse, steel warehouse, masonry warehouse, and so on.
7. Classified by the location of the warehouse
According to the geographical location of the warehouse, it can be divided into dock warehouses, inland warehouses, etc. This is a classification based on the characteristics given to the warehouses by the geographical location of the warehouses.
Eight, classified by the number of types of items kept
1. Comprehensive library: refers to the warehouse used to store a variety of items with different attributes.
2. Professional library: refers to the warehouse used to store one or a large category of items.
Nine, classified by storage conditions
1. Ordinary warehouse: refers to the warehouse used to store items without special storage requirements.
2. Insulation, refrigeration, and constant temperature and humidity storage: refers to the warehouse used to store items that require insulation, refrigeration, or constant temperature and humidity.
3. Special warehouse: Generally refers to the warehouse used to store flammable, explosive, toxic, corrosive or radiant items.
4. Modified atmosphere warehouse: refers to the warehouse used to store items that require control of oxygen and carbon dioxide concentration in the warehouse.
Ten, classified by warehouse building structure
1. Closed warehouse: This kind of warehouse is commonly known as 'treasury'. The structure of the warehouse is highly closed, which facilitates maintenance of the inventory and is suitable for storing items with relatively high storage requirements.
2. Semi-closed warehouse: This warehouse is commonly referred to as 'cargo shed'. Its storage conditions are not as good as those of the warehouse, but it is more convenient to enter and leave the warehouse, and the construction cost is low. It is suitable for storing those items that do not require high temperature and humidity and frequent warehouse .
3. Open-air warehouse: This warehouse is commonly known as 'cargo yard'. Its biggest advantage is that it is extremely convenient for loading and unloading operations, which is suitable for storing larger goods.
Eleven, classified by building structure
1. Bungalow warehouse: The structure of bungalow warehouse is relatively simple, the construction cost is cheap, and the manual operation is more convenient.
2. Building warehouse: A building warehouse refers to a warehouse with more than two floors. It can reduce the land occupation area. Mechanized or semi-mechanized operations can be used for entering and leaving the warehouse.
3. High-level shelf warehouse: In terms of operations, high-level shelf warehouses are mainly controlled by electronic computers, which can realize mechanization and automation.
4. Tank storage: tank storage has a special structure, which is spherical or cylindrical, and is mainly used to store oil, natural gas and liquid chemicals.
5. Simple warehouses: Simple warehouses have simple structure and low cost. Generally, they are temporary replacement methods when the warehouse is insufficient and the warehouse cannot be built in time, including some fixed or movable simple sheds.
Twelve, according to the shape of the library
1. Ground-type warehouse: Generally refers to the use of non-shelf-type storage equipment in a single-floor ground warehouse.
2. Shelf-type warehouse: refers to a warehouse that uses multiple layers of storage. There are goods and pallets on the shelves, and the goods and pallets can slide on the shelves. Shelves are divided into fixed shelves and mobile shelves.
3. Automated three-dimensional warehouse: Point out the high-level shelf warehouse that uses storage machinery to store and take out, and uses stacking machines and other equipment for mechanized and automated operations.
Thirteen, classified by warehouse function
Modern logistics management strives to synchronize the purchase and delivery, so that the warehouse management changes from static management to dynamic management, and the warehouse function changes accordingly. These new warehouse bases have the following new titles:
1. Collecting center: Collecting scattered goods into batches is called 'collecting'. The collection center can be located in a region with a large number of production points and a limited output at each production point; as long as the total output of certain products in this area reaches a certain level, such a logistics base with a 'collection' function can be set up.
2. Distribution center: Dividing the goods delivered in large quantities into smaller batches is called 'distribution', and the distribution center is a logistics base mainly engaged in distribution. Enterprises can use large-scale packaging and bulk cargo to transport the goods to the distribution center, and then repack according to the needs of the company's production or sales. The use of distribution centers can reduce transportation costs.
3. Transshipment center: The main job of the transshipment center is to undertake the transfer of goods between different modes of transport. The transfer center can carry out the transfer of two modes of transportation, as well as the transfer of multiple modes of transportation. Some are called truck transfer centers, some are called train transfer centers, and some are called comprehensive transfer centers.
4. Machining center: The main work of the machining center is to carry out circulation processing. The processing center installed in the supply area mainly performs processing for the main purpose of logistics, and the processing center installed in the consumer area mainly performs processing for the main purpose of sales and service enhancement.
5. Storage and adjustment center: The storage and adjustment center takes reserve as the main work content, and its functions are basically the same as traditional warehouses.
6. Distribution center: It is a logistics place or organization engaged in distribution business. It basically meets the following requirements:
(1) Serve mainly for specific users
(2) sound distribution function
(3) Perfect information network
(4) Small radiation range
(5) Multiple varieties and small batches
(6) Distribution-based, supplemented by storage
7. Logistics center: It is a place or organization engaged in logistics activities, which basically meets the following requirements:
(1) Mainly for social services
(2) Sound logistics functions
(3) The radiation range of the perfect information network journal is large
(4) Few varieties and large quantities
(5) Strong storage and throughput capabilities
(6) Unified operation and management of logistics business.
Fourteen, classified by the degree of warehouse automation
1. Ordinary warehouses: These warehouses have no modern equipment, and even if there are, they are few.
2. Intelligent warehouses: These warehouses are all operated by computer systems, so they are also called 'unmanned warehouses'. Inspection, release, storage, sorting, distribution, distribution, statistics, and settlement of goods in and out of the warehouse are all automated.
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