Due to the wide variety of seaborne cargo (international shipping involves the import and export of goods), there are many classification methods.
(1) Classified by physical form
①Bulk cargo. Bulk cargo refers to cargo whose physical form is fine powder or granular during transportation, such as coal, mineral powder, grain, fertilizer, and cement; in large quantities of water transportation, bulk cargo transportation is usually used. . ②Liquid cargo. Liquid cargo refers to the cargo whose physical form is gas during transportation, which becomes liquid after compression, and is packed in containers for transportation, such as petroleum, petroleum products, liquefied natural gas, liquefied gas, etc.
③ Pieces of groceries. In the process of transportation, no matter what the physical form, the goods that are packaged into bags, barrels, boxes, and bundles before being transported are called groceries. In all ocean freight, although the proportion of general cargo is not particularly large, it is the most extensive cargo. Almost all manufactured products, including most mechanical equipment, spare parts, standard parts, people's daily necessities (department stores), as well as agricultural products, fruits, animal products, refrigerated food, refrigerated supplies, etc., in the transportation process, most Expressed as a 'piece of groceries' in a certain form of packaging. Simply put, during transportation, all goods that need to be repackaged are called 'pieces of groceries'.
(2) Classification according to the nature of the goods
①General cargo. It refers to general goods whose nature has no special requirements.
②Special cargo. It means that the goods are special in nature, shape, volume, etc. In transportation and storage, there are special requirements, which are generally divided into fresh and live goods, dangerous goods, bulky and large goods, valuable goods and foreign goods.
(3) Classified by cargo moisture content
①Dry goods. It refers to goods that basically do not contain moisture or contain little moisture, and most packaged groceries fall into this category.
②Wet goods. It refers to bulk liquid cargo, such as liquid cargo in metal or plastic drums.
(4) Classified by packaging form
①Package goods. It refers to goods that are completely packaged by packaging materials and cannot be seen directly, such as cigarettes, biscuits, computers and other daily consumer goods.
②Nude loading. It means that the main parts of the goods themselves are packaged by packaging materials, while other parts are not packaged, or even the whole goods are not packaged. You can directly see the goods themselves, such as steel, generators, machine tools and other production goods.
③Bulk cargo. It refers to the goods that are in bulk without any packaging, such as bulk grains, coal, ore and other primary products.
(5) Classified by the number of goods
① Pieces of groceries. It means that each batch is small in quantity, has packaging, can be divided into pieces, and a single piece of light and small goods.
②Bulk goods. It refers to the primary products with larger quantities and uniform specifications in each batch. Since it is mostly in bulk during transportation, it is also called bulk cargo. In English, both bulk cargo and bulk cargo are represented by Bulk cargo.
(6) Classified according to the weight and volume of the goods
①Heavy cargo. It refers to 1 metric ton of cargo whose volume is less than 1.133 cubic meters (ten cubic feet).
②Light goods. Or called light foam cargo, foam cargo and bulk cargo. It refers to 1 metric ton of cargo with a volume greater than 1.133 cubic meters (our cubic feet) of cargo. The current ocean freight convention is based on the calculation standard of 1 cubic meter. When the volume of 1 metric ton of cargo is greater than 1 cubic meter, the freight is calculated according to the volume of the cargo, otherwise, the freight is charged according to the weight of the cargo.
(7) Classified by cargo measurement
Over-long cargo, over-weight cargo and over-weight and over-long cargo. This means that their weight or length, or weight and volume at the same time, exceed the ship's weight and length limits.
(8) Classified by packing volume
① FCL cargo. It refers to the cargo that the shipper can consign to fill a container. Or there is less than one container, but the shipper requires the goods to be consigned in one container.
②LCL cargo. It refers to the cargo that the shipper's cargo is not enough to fill a container and needs to be assembled in the same container with the cargo of other shippers.
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