With the rapid development of the economy and e-commerce, the logistics industry has ushered in a golden period of global development. The United States is recognized by the industry as a country with an earlier start in the logistics industry, while China is recognized by the world as a country with a rapidly developing logistics industry. In order to deepen your understanding of Sino-US logistics, the editor of this article makes a simple comparison of the differences between China and the United States, and hopes that it will be helpful to everyone.
I. Differences in the definition of logistics between China and the United States
(I) Definition of China Logistics
There are some differences between the definition of logistics in China and the United States. The national standard definition of logistics is 'the physical flow of goods from the place of supply to the place of reception. According to actual needs, transportation, storage, loading and unloading, handling, packaging, distribution processing, Basic functions such as distribution and information processing are organically combined. '
(B) the definition of American logistics
The US logistics definition has more customer requirements, benefits, and planning, implementation, and process control than China. The definition of logistics in the United States focuses on the micro-enterprise perspective, while the definition of logistics in China focuses on the combination of macro and micro.
Comparison of history of logistics development between China and the United States
(I) History of American Logistics Development
The 2001 annual United States logistics development report shows that from the perspective of logistics activities to decentralization to systematization. The integration of the logistics development in the United States is divided into four stages:
(1) Before 1960, various logistics activities were scattered in various departments of the enterprise, and demand forecasting, raw material procurement and inventory, finished product inventory, packaging, distribution, and logistics activities such as transportation were carried out independently;
(2) In the 1970s, raw material demand forecasting, ordering, inventory and other pre-production logistics activities were integrated to achieve the systematization of raw material supply management, while finished product inventory, packaging, transportation, customer order management, and other post-production logistics The activities were integrated to achieve the systematization of product sales logistics;
(3) In the 1980s and 1990s, the integration of raw material supply logistics management and finished product sales logistics was a period of integrated logistics management;
(4) Since the 21st century, American logistics has developed into a period of supply chain logistics management.
(II) History of China's logistics development
According to Li Qihong of Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, according to the growth trend of China's total logistics, China's logistics industry can be roughly divided into the following development stages:
(1) Prior to 1979, China implemented a highly centralized planned economy management system and had not yet introduced the concept of logistics. Only logistics-related distribution, transportation, and warehousing industries, and logistics activities mainly ensured the implementation of national mandatory plans. It is one of the main factors of the positive and negative phenomenon when the growth rate of logistics scale appears. The logistics links are fragmented from each other, the system is poor, the overall economic benefits are low, and the overall growth rate of logistics is small.
(2) From 1979 to the end of the 1980s, China's economy began to transition from a planned economy to a market economy. The concept of modern logistics attracted our country in 1979, and the academic community strengthened its research and publicity on modern logistics management. The central government issued guidance documents and other methods to guide the deepening reform of enterprise production materials and price management, especially the management of material circulation. , Promoted the increase in the importance of various types of enterprises to modern logistics. Logistics activities are no longer confined to passive transportation, and the systematic operation of warehousing and logistics has begun to take shape. The initial formation of a favorable policy development environment and the preliminary application of logistics management technology have promoted a higher growth rate of the total logistics volume.
(3) Since the 1990s, due to the popularity of modern logistics concepts, the surge in modern logistics research, the widespread use of logistics management technologies, the promotion of government, changes in the economic environment, and changes in the way companies operate and manage, China's logistics development speeds up. The total amount of logistics has also grown rapidly.
Comparison of Sino-US logistics development paths
China's logistics industry is often driven by demand. For example, SF originated in the Pearl River Delta. Because it trades with Hong Kong, it has sufficient logistics operations in this very small area; similar to the one-stop service that originated in the Yangtze River Delta. To meet high-intensity needs in this very small area. The pull of demand has formed development. There is no doubt that, relative to supply, the pulling force in the middle of demand is much greater. When FedEx first started, it invested 27 planes, 180 pieces a day, can it survive? Can't live.
At that time, the federal government wanted to perform corresponding express delivery for the flow of documents in the US Federal Reserve and banking systems. But in fact, the Fed did not use him. Its business model has been set up, and there is no demand at all, so it has made huge losses in the previous period. Only in the late 1970s and early 1980s did American high-tech industries form electronic products, pharmaceutical products, and other industries, which created demand.
It is conceivable that the geographic economic structure of the United States will make the emergence of enterprises more difficult. But once it appears, it will have certain barriers. This is actually a barrier to capital. The development of an industry is more driven from the industrial side and from the supply side. Such enterprises will be more durable.
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