Recently, the General Office of the State Council issued the 'Notice on Forwarding the Implementation Opinions of the Ministry of Transport of the National Development and Reform Commission on Further Reduction of Logistics Costs' (Guobanfa﹝2020) No. 10, referred to as 'Opinions'). The 'Opinions' centered on the overall goal of 'reducing burdens, lowering costs, improving quality and efficiency', and following the basic principles of 'based on the current, long-term perspective, combining far and near, and treating both symptoms and root causes', it proposes 24 logistics cost reduction measures in 6 aspects to optimize China's logistics The overall construction of the system has enabled the high-quality and rapid development of China's logistics field.
The high level of social logistics costs in my country is closely related to objective factors such as the high proportion of the primary and secondary industries, the high degree of economic export, the uneven distribution of regional industries and natural resources, the vast inland depth and the complex terrain. At the same time, the effective supply and connection of logistics infrastructure is insufficient, the overall logistics operation efficiency is not high, and the policy environment is imperfect, and other constraints cannot be ignored. This is also caused by the current high level of storage costs, management costs, and the proportion of loading and unloading costs in transportation costs. Larger important reason. In general, the problems are concentrated in the 'four threes', namely the 'three difficulties', difficult to use land, financing, and transportation; 'three more', more management lines, more charging items, and more tax burdens; 'three 'Low', the proportion of molten iron transportation is low, the standardization level is low, and the industry concentration is low; the 'three impediments' include poor infrastructure connectivity, poor iron and molten iron trunk channels, and poor information interconnection and sharing.
From the overall perspective of logistics cost reduction work, with the improvement of the logistics infrastructure network, the application of new technologies and new models and the improvement of corporate management, China’s logistics costs are expected to gradually decrease to a more reasonable level. However, in the short term, manufacturing logistics demand will continue to remain relatively high. Large-scale, rapid development of multi-batch and small-batch logistics brought about by changes in production and lifestyles. The cost of resources such as labor and land has continued to rise. Logistics cost reduction is facing more severe and complex challenges. Especially with the deepening of logistics cost reduction work, the space for cost reduction in some areas has been relatively limited.
In recent years, the State Council has issued a series of policies and measures to reduce logistics costs, and various departments have vigorously implemented them and achieved positive results. my country's social logistics costs have been steadily declining, and the overall logistics efficiency and service levels have been significantly improved. This has provided strong support for my country to build a modern economic system and promote high-quality economic development. However, compared with the requirements of high-quality development and the international horizontal, the problems of high logistics costs and low efficiency in my country are still outstanding, and the ability to serve the real economy needs to be further improved.
In 2019, in accordance with the relevant instructions of the Party Central Committee, the main leaders of the Ministry of Transport led the team separately and went to Fujian, Hubei, Chongqing, Sichuan, Jiangsu and other places to carry out special research on reducing logistics costs, and held several expert consultation meetings and corporate seminars to listen On this basis, the relevant recommendations formed the 'Report on Further Promoting the Reduction of Logistics Costs' and submitted it to the State Council. In accordance with the instructions of Premier Li Keqiang, Vice Premier Han Zheng and Vice Premier Liu He, the Ministry of Transport and the National Development and Reform Commission, together with the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Public Security, researched and drafted and submitted the 'Implementation Opinions' to the State Council.
Deepen the reform of key links and reduce the cost of the logistics system
Improve the procedures for licenses and permits. Speed ??up the digitization of qualification certificates in the transportation field and promote online endorsements. Optimize the inter-provincial parallel licensing services for large-scale transportation to further improve the efficiency of approval; scientifically promote the management of vehicle overloads. We will further promote the normalization and institutionalization of joint law enforcement for overtravel control, refine the law enforcement process, and strictly implement the unified national law enforcement standards for overtravel control. Carry out the work of controlling illegal modification of freight vehicles in an orderly manner by models and in stages, and gradually eliminate various non-compliant models. Organize and carry out special treatment actions for atmospheric liquid dangerous cargo tankers; maintain the normal order of the road freight market. Establish a normalized working mechanism for severely cracking down on highways, national and provincial roads, road tyrants and road tyrants, unblock complaints and reporting channels, and focus on regulating market order in areas such as vehicle traffic, parking services, and road rescue.
Optimize the traffic and parking management of urban distribution vehicles. Continue to promote the urban green freight distribution demonstration project. Improve the three-level distribution network supported by comprehensive logistics centers, public distribution centers, and terminal distribution outlets, and reasonably set up relevant facilities for urban distribution vehicles to park and unload. Encourage the development of intensive distribution such as joint distribution, unified distribution, centralized distribution, and time-sharing distribution. Improve the traffic management of urban distribution vehicles, clarify the conceptual scope of urban distribution vehicles, relax the restrictions on the passage of standardized light-type distribution vehicles, and give more traffic convenience to new energy urban distribution vehicles. Research and incorporate the construction of the docking and unloading site for urban distribution vehicles into the urban construction and architectural design specifications.
Promote the facilitation of customs clearance. Promote paperless operation documents in ports, ports and other places, shorten the circulation time of documents, and improve the efficiency of goods entering and leaving ports. Relying on the 'single window' of international trade, we will carry out pilot projects for two-way interaction between supervision and inspection instruction information and port information, and increase the speed of import and export cargo pickup. Continue to promote the 'advance declaration' of import and export, and optimize the 'two-step declaration' customs clearance model. Sort out the approval management items and regulatory documents for shipping and customs clearance, and cancel or exit the port for verification if it is unreasonable or cannot meet the needs of supervision.
Deepen the reform of railway marketization. Select regions with dense railway network, large freight demand, and prominent contradiction between transportation supply and demand, and some important railway freight
lines (including the distribution system) to carry out comprehensive pilots of railway market reform, and carry out investment, financing, planning and construction by introducing market competition mechanisms , Operation management, performance management, transportation organization and other reforms. Continue to improve the flexible adjustment mechanism of railway freight transportation prices to timely and sensitively reflect the relationship between market supply and demand. Further relax market access and attract social capital to participate in the construction and operation of logistics facilities such as railway freight yards and warehousing.
Strengthen land and capital security and reduce the cost of logistics elements
Guarantee the land demand for logistics. For major logistics infrastructure projects such as national logistics hubs, railway dedicated lines, cold chain logistics facilities, and other major logistics infrastructure projects determined by the state and relevant departments, provinces (autonomous regions, and municipalities), key guarantees are given in terms of construction land indicators. Support the construction of logistics facilities using stock land such as land allocated by railways. Instruct local governments to use collective operating construction land to build logistics infrastructure in accordance with relevant regulations.
Improve the assessment of logistics land. Guide local governments to reasonably set performance evaluation indicators for logistics land use. Under the premise of conforming to the plan and not changing the use, the land price will not be increased for those that increase the utilization rate and floor area ratio of self-owned industrial land or storage land and use it for the construction of logistics facilities such as storage, distribution and transshipment.
Broaden financing channels. Increase the support for the construction of major logistics infrastructure such as national logistics hubs and national backbone cold chain logistics bases by investment within the central budget and special local government bonds. Guide banking financial institutions to strengthen financing support for logistics enterprises, encourage the standardized development of supply chain finance, and rely on core enterprises to strengthen financial services for upstream and downstream small and micro enterprises. Give full play to the role of a comprehensive credit service platform for the financing of small and medium-sized enterprises across the country, and promote the 'Xinyi Loan' model. Implement credit due diligence exemption and differentiated assessment and incentive policies, and clarify due diligence standards and exemption conditions. Encourage social capital to set up a logistics industry development fund.
Improve the risk compensation and sharing mechanism. Encourage insurance companies to provide guarantee insurance credit enhancement support for logistics companies to obtain credit financing, and increase policy guarantees to provide logistics companies with credit guarantee support. Give full play to the advantages of commercial insurance and support insurance companies to develop comprehensive insurance products for logistics enterprises and accident and medical insurance products for employees of emerging logistics businesses.
In-depth implementation of tax and fee reduction measures to reduce logistics tax costs
Implement preferential tax policies in the logistics field. Implement logistics tax and fee reduction policies such as halving the urban land use tax on the land used for bulk commodity storage; reduce the cost of road traffic. Combined with deepening the reform of the toll road system, comprehensively promote differentiated tolls on expressways, guide the scientific diversion of vehicles on congested sections and time periods, and further improve traffic efficiency. Deepen the reform of expressway electronic non-stop toll collection. Strengthen the road network operation guarantee after the cancellation of expressway toll stations at the provincial boundary to ensure that the overall burden of truck tolls is not increased. Encourage places where conditions permit to repurchase the toll rights of operating ordinary toll roads and implement free passage for vehicles. Strictly implement the 'green channel' policy for the transportation of fresh and live agricultural products, and effectively reduce the transportation cost of fresh and live agricultural products such as chilled pork.
Reduce railway air freight charges. Streamline railway freight miscellaneous fees, lower the fees for late payment of freight and miscellaneous fees, and strictly implement the cancellation of freight transportation change fees. Vigorously promote the 'Buy Now' transportation of bulk goods. Strictly implement the charging catalogue list and publicity system in the field of railway dedicated lines, and clean up and standardize the charging items outside the catalogue list, local government surcharges, and private line property rights units or operating units. Formulate rules for the price behavior of railway dedicated line services, standardize the charging behavior of railway dedicated lines and self-provided vehicle maintenance services, and further reduce the charging standards. It is strictly forbidden to increase or increase other fees in a disguised manner to offset the effect of fee reduction. Promote the high-quality development of China-Europe trains, optimize the organization of train transportation, strengthen resource integration, promote 'transit collection and distribution', standardize unhealthy competition, and further reduce the cost of train operations. Consolidate the airport cargo terminal arrival fee into the cargo handling fee.
Standardize shipping port charges. Reduce port, inspection and quarantine fees. Carry out special clean-up and rectification of shipping port charges, further streamline and consolidate charges, improve the list of shipping port charges and implement dynamic management to ensure that there are no charges outside the list. Study the integration of port facility security fees, etc. into port operation leasing fees, and reduce some government-priced port charges. Regulate the charging behavior of port enterprises and shipping companies in accordance with the law. Reduce the level of conventional charges for container import and export.
Strengthen the supervision of charging behavior in the logistics field. For charging items subject to government pricing or government-guided prices, timely reduce the high charging standards; for charging items subject to market-adjusted prices, research and establish rules and guidelines for charging behavior. Strictly implement the system of charging items and standard publicity, and intensify investigation and punishment of acts that do not charge according to the public price standard or increase fees at will. Investigate and punish violations of laws and regulations such as compulsory fees, only fees but no services, and excessive fees.
Strengthen the open sharing of information and reduce the cost of logistics information
Promote the open sharing of logistics information. Under the premise of ensuring information security, units such as transportation, public security traffic management, railways, ports, and aviation must open public information related to logistics to the society. In accordance with the principles of safe sharing and reciprocity and mutual benefit, promote the docking of information systems between railway enterprises and enterprises such as ports and logistics, improve standards such as information interfaces, and strengthen the opening of information such as train arrival times. Study the establishment of a national multimodal transport
public information system, implement standardized data interfaces and protocols, and achieve greater data information sharing; reduce the cost of truck positioning information. For freight vehicles that have been installed with satellite positioning devices before leaving the factory, no unit may require repeated installation of satellite positioning devices. Standardize the charging behavior of freight vehicle positioning information service providers, and reduce the cost of freight vehicle positioning information.
Promote the efficient connection of logistics facilities and reduce the cost of logistics intermodal transportation
Eliminate the 'medium obstruction' of multimodal transport. The central and local finances increase financial support for the construction of logistics facilities such as railway dedicated lines and multimodal transport stations, study and formulate design specifications for railway dedicated lines entering ports, and promote railway dedicated lines entering ports, large industrial and mining enterprises, and logistics hubs. . Continue to promote the construction of the Yangtze River Channel Improvement Project and the Three Gorges Dam Overturning Integrated Transit System to further enhance the shipping capacity of the Yangtze River and other inland rivers. Accelerate the promotion of 'revolution to iron' and 'revolution to water' for long-distance transportation of bulk cargo. Focus on multimodal transport demonstration projects, promote the application of multimodal transport bills, and accelerate the development of 'one-order' intermodal transport services.
Improve the logistics standard specification system. Promote the application of freight vehicles, inland vessels, standardized pallets and packaging basic modules that meet national standards, and drive the standardization of upstream and downstream logistics loading equipment. Strengthen compliance with international standards, adapt to the development needs of multimodal transport, promote the application of inland containers (series 2), strengthen the research on safety loading standards for specific cargo types, and reduce repeated boxing and packing.
Promote the quality and efficiency of the logistics industry and reduce the overall cost of logistics
Promote the construction of logistics infrastructure network. To study and formulate implementation plans for the construction of a national logistics hub network from 2021 to 2025, integrate and optimize existing logistics infrastructure resources, build a 'channel + hub + network' logistics operation system, and systematically reduce logistics costs such as full transportation and warehousing. Continue to implement the demonstration logistics park project and demonstrate the interconnection of backbone logistics parks. Layout and build a number of national backbone cold chain logistics bases, make up for the shortcomings of urban and rural cold chain logistics facilities, integrate cold chain logistics and agricultural production and circulation resources, and improve the scale, intensification, organization and networking of cold chain logistics Level and reduce the cost of cold chain logistics. Strengthen the construction of county and village joint distribution infrastructure, and promote the application of new cold chain logistics facilities and equipment such as mobile cold storage. Strengthen the construction of the emergency logistics system, improve the emergency logistics infrastructure network, integrate various stock infrastructure resources such as reserves, transportation, and distribution, accelerate the filling of the shortcomings of the emergency logistics infrastructure in specific areas and specific fields, and improve the emergency logistics support capacity in emergency situations .
Cultivate backbone logistics enterprises. Encourage market-oriented mergers and reorganizations of large logistics enterprises to improve their comprehensive service capabilities and international competitiveness. Cultivate strong international shipping
companies, and promote the construction of an international shipping network commensurate with the scale of my country's foreign trade. Strictly implement the relevant regulations and standards for the operation of the online freight platform, and promote the standardized development of new forms of road freight. Encourage logistics enterprises to transform into multimodal transport operators and full-chain logistics service providers; improve the development level of modern supply chains. Promote in-depth supply chain innovation and application pilot projects, summarize and promote successful experience and models of pilot projects, improve the efficiency of capital and inventory turnover, and promote the integration and innovation of modern supply chains with agriculture, industry, and commercial circulation. Research and formulate a modern supply chain development strategy, and accelerate the development of a digital, intelligent, and global modern supply chain.
Speed ??up the development of smart logistics. Actively promote the construction of a new generation of national traffic control network, and accelerate the digital upgrade of cargo management, transportation services, and station facilities. Promote the application of emerging technologies and intelligent equipment, improve the automation and intelligence level of logistics links such as warehousing, transportation, distribution and distribution; actively develop green logistics. Deeply promote the greening and reduction of cargo packaging and logistics equipment, and encourage enterprises to develop and use recyclable green packaging and degradable green packaging materials. Accelerate the establishment of a circular sharing system for standardized loading equipment such as pallets to reduce repeated investment by enterprises.
'Three Features' and 'Five Aspects' to ensure policy measures
The first feature is to face the problem directly and strive for practical results. Focus on the 'old difficulty' that restricts logistics cost reduction, innovate ideas and policy methods, and strive to improve the sense of corporate policy acquisition. For example, in terms of maintaining the order of the road freight market, it is proposed to establish a normalized working mechanism to severely crack down on highways, national and provincial roads, robbers and road tyrants; in terms of promoting customs clearance facilitation, it is proposed to systematically sort out the approval management items and supervision documents of shipping and customs clearance. If it is unreasonable or unable to meet the needs of supervision, it shall be cancelled or withdrawn from the port inspection according to regulations; in terms of land use, it is proposed to increase the utilization rate and floor area ratio of own industrial land or storage land and use it for the construction of logistics facilities such as storage, distribution and transshipment. , No more land price etc.
The second feature is the combination of far and near and coordinated advancement. On the one hand, the 'Opinions' focus on the focus and difficult issues of concentrated industry feedback and widespread concern of the society, and new situations and new problems in the logistics field since the outbreak of the new crown pneumonia epidemic,Introduce and implement new detailed and practical measures in one step. On the other hand, it focuses on strengthening the connection and transformation of different fields and different logistics links, and promotes the transformation of 'quantity cost reduction' oriented by reducing absolute cost expenditures to 'efficiency cost reduction' oriented by improving logistics operation system.
The third feature is to strengthen overall planning and pay close attention to implementation. Logistics cost reduction has a wide range of work areas and multiple lines, involving multiple departmental responsibilities, and requires the joint efforts of relevant departments. In this regard, the 'Opinions' clearly stated that it is necessary to give play to the role of the national inter-ministerial joint meeting of modern logistics work, coordinate and solve the problems in the implementation of policies, and ensure that various policy measures are effective.
The relevant person in charge of the National Development and Reform Commission also stated, 'The National Development and Reform Commission will divide the work according to the 'Opinions', pay close attention to the implementation of various tasks, and focus on the advantages of comprehensive coordination and macro-control departments to promote improvement. The 'channel + hub + network' logistics operation system systematically improves the efficiency of the logistics system, and promotes the reduction of social logistics costs in a deeper and wider range.'
In the near future, it will focus on five areas of work: solidly promote the construction of the national logistics hub network. On the basis of the preliminary work, we will do a good job in the construction of the national logistics hub in 2020, accelerate the construction of the basic framework and important support of the national logistics hub network, further integrate and gather various existing logistics resources, and improve the scale, network, and intensive development of the industry. At the same time, we will start to study and formulate the implementation plan for the construction of the national logistics hub network in 2021-2025.
Layout and build a national backbone cold chain logistics base. To build a number of national backbone cold chain logistics bases for the advantageous production areas and distribution centers of high value-added fresh agricultural products, integrate the supply and demand of the cold chain logistics market, inventory facilities, and upstream and downstream industrial resources such as the circulation and production and processing of agricultural products, and promote the reduction of cold chain logistics. This will increase efficiency and support the industrialization of fresh agricultural products.
Strengthen the construction of emergency reserve facilities. Combining with the construction of major logistics infrastructure and other work, study the layout and construction of a batch of emergency reserve facilities in areas with conditions, strengthen the storage and dispatch capabilities of emergency materials such as medical care, and provide strong support for improving the emergency response capabilities of major emergencies.
Promote the integrated development of the logistics industry. The important reasons for the short-term and local material shortages and insufficient industrial chain coordination that occurred in the early stage of the new crown pneumonia epidemic and during the resumption of production are due to the insufficient linkage of the logistics industry and the insufficient flexibility of the supply chain. In this regard, the National Development and Reform Commission is working with relevant departments to study and formulate policy documents, intending to promote the deep integration and innovative development of the logistics industry in some key links and key areas.
Organize the demonstration work of logistics parks. In accordance with the relevant work arrangements of the State Council, two batches of 56 demonstration logistics parks have been released in conjunction with relevant departments, which have played an active role in driving the leading role of backbone parks and promoting the improvement of the operational efficiency of the logistics system. In the near future, the National Development and Reform Commission will, in accordance with the requirements of the 'Opinions', work with relevant departments to study the selection of a new batch of demonstration logistics parks and further promote the overall development of the logistics park.
In accordance with the decisions and deployments of the Party Central Committee and the State Council, all regions and departments must strengthen policy overall coordination, earnestly implement work responsibilities, and conscientiously organize implementation in light of the actual conditions of their respective regions and departments. The National Development and Reform Commission shall, in conjunction with relevant departments, give play to the role of the National Inter-Ministerial Joint Conference on Modern Logistics Work, strengthen work guidance, promptly summarize and promote typical experience and practices in reducing logistics costs, coordinate and solve problems in policy implementation, and ensure that various policy measures are effective.