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Encyclopedia of cargo export shipping operations

by:VIPUTRANS     2020-09-03
1. For export transportation by sea, when a transaction is made under CIF or CFR terms and the seller arranges the transportation, the working procedures are as follows:

(1) Review the shipping terms in the letter of credit: in order to make the shipment work smoothly, after receiving the letter of credit, you must review the relevant shipping terms in the letter, such as the shipping period, settlement period, port of shipment, port of destination, whether it can be Transshipment or partial shipment and whether or not to designate the shipping company, name of the ship, ship’s registration and class, etc., some certificates require various certificates, such as a route certificate, a ship’s registration certificate, etc. We should follow these terms and regulations Our country’s policy, international practice, whether the request is reasonable and whether it can be met, etc. will be considered for accepting or submitting a request for modification.

(2) Preparation and inspection: According to the specifications of the type, specification, quantity, packaging, etc. of the goods in the export transaction contract and the letter of credit, prepare the export goods on time, quality, and quantity, and make an application. Inspection and certification work. Refrigerated cargo should be cooled down to ensure that it meets the specified temperature requirements during shipment. In our country, all the commodities listed in the 'category table' stipulated by the commodity inspection agency and the commodities for which the commodity inspection agency is required to issue a certificate according to the letter of credit and the trade contract must fill in the 'export inspection application' to apply for commodity inspection before export declaration. . Some export commodities require weight identification, and some require animal and plant quarantine or sanitation and safety inspections, which must be completed in advance to obtain qualified inspection certificates. Make preparations before shipment, and the cargo certificate is complete, and you can handle the consignment work.

(3) Consignment booking: prepare the export consignment note, and then go through the entrusted booking procedure with the freight forwarder. The freight forwarder shall make timely bookings with the shipping company or its agent after sorting and sorting by route according to the specific requirements of the cargo owner. The cargo owner can also book directly with the shipping company or its agent. When the shipping company or its agent signs the shipping order, the booking is completed, which means that the contract of carriage between the shipper and the carrier has been concluded.

(4) Insurance: Once the cargo is booked, if the cargo is insured by the seller, you can go through the insurance procedures for cargo transportation insurance. The insured amount is usually insured at the CIF price of the invoice plus (the plus is agreed upon by the buyer and the seller, if not agreed, the insurance is usually increased by 10%).

(5) Cargo concentration port area: When the ship’s arrival and loading plan is determined, the shipper will complete the collection procedures in accordance with the port area’s purchase notice and within the specified time limit, and transport the exported goods to the port area in time, waiting for loading Ship, clear the batch, the number of pieces, and the mark. Pay special attention to maintaining close contact with the port area, shipping companies and related transportation companies or railways and other units to complete the purchase on time to prevent the work from being out of touch and affecting the shipment progress.

(6) Customs declaration: After the goods are concentrated in the port area, the prepared export goods declaration form together with the packing list, invoice, packing list, commodity inspection certificate, export contract, foreign exchange verification form and other relevant documents are declared to the customs for export. Shipment can only be carried out after the customs officers pass the inspection and release.

(7) Shipment work: Before loading the ship, the tallyman, on behalf of the ship, collects the loading list and receipt of the goods released by the customs, after sorting, according to the stowage plan and manifest, the cargo is received in batches ferry. During the loading process, the freight forwarder entrusted by the shipper should have someone on site to supervise the loading to keep track of the progress of the shipment and deal with temporary problems. After loading the goods, the tally leader and the ship’s chief mate must sign the receipt and hand it to the shipper. If the tally clerk finds that a batch is defective or poorly packaged, he shall endorse it on the receipt and sign it by the chief mate to determine the responsibilities of both parties. However, as a shipper, you should try to get a clean bill of lading without remarks on the receipt.

(8) After the shipment is completed, the shipper, in addition to issuing a shipment notice to the consignee, can exchange the on-board bill of lading with the shipping company or its agent on the basis of the receipt. At this time, the transportation work ends.

(9) Settlement of foreign exchange bills: After preparing the foreign exchange settlement documents stipulated in the contract or letter of credit, within the effective period of negotiation stipulated in the contract or letter of credit, submit the bill to the bank for settlement procedures.

2. Export procedures for container transportation:

(1) Booking-the shipper fills out the container cargo consignment note (CONTAINER BOOKING NOTE) within a fixed time according to the provisions of the trade contract or letter of credit, and entrusts its agent or directly applies to the shipping company for booking .

(2) Accept consignment application-shipping company or agent company considers the shipper’s requirements according to its own capacity, route and other specific conditions, and decides whether to accept it or not. If the application is accepted, it will start to compile the booking list and then distribute it to the container stack Yard (CY), container freight station (CFS), to arrange empty containers and handle freight handover.

(3) Distribution of empty containers-usually the empty containers of FCL freight are picked up by the shipper at the container terminal yard, and some owners have their own containers; the empty containers of LCL freight are picked up by the container freight station.

(4) Packing of less-than-container cargo-the shipper delivers the insufficient-full container of goods to the freight station, and the freight station is responsible for packing according to the booking list and the station receipt, and then the packer prepares the container packing list (CONTAINER LOAD PLAN).

(5) Delivery of the entire container-the consignor is responsible for packing and shipping the entire container sealed by the customs to CY. CY checks the receipt of the station (DOCK RECEIPT D/R) and packing list according to the booking list and accepts the goods.

(6) Container handover visa-CY or CFS signs on the receipt of the goods and/or boxes, that is, at the station, and returns the signed D/R to the shipper.

(7) Exchange the bill of lading-the shipper shall exchange the COMBINED TRA ORT BILL OF LADING (COMBINED TRA ORT BILL OF LADING) with the container transport operator or its agent by D/R, and then go to the bank to settle the exchange.

(8) Shipment-The container loading and unloading area formulates a shipment plan according to the loading situation, and adjusts the shipped boxes to the yard in front of the container terminal. After the ship docks, it can be shipped out.

3. Main shipping documents and their production

1. The consignment note (SHI ING NOTE--B/N) is sometimes called 'shipping paper', which is filled out by the shipper in accordance with the terms of the trade contract and the letter of credit, and the cargo is consigned to the carrier or its agent Documents. The carrier will accept the consignment based on the contents of the consignment note, combined with the ship’s route, port of call, shipping schedule and space, etc., and consider it appropriate. Pay attention to the preparation of consignment note:

(1) Destination port: The name must be clear and specific and consistent with the description in the letter of credit. If there is a port with the same name, the country, region or state and city must be indicated after the port name. If the letter of credit stipulates that the port of destination is OPTIONAL PORTS, it should be the basic port on the same route and the same voyage call.

(2) The shipping number, that is, the number of the power of attorney.

Every shipper with import and export rights has a consignment code (usually also a commercial invoice number) for verification and financial settlement.

(3) Name of goods

It should be based on the actual name of the goods, in both Chinese and English, and more importantly, it must match the name of the goods listed in the credit.

(4) Marks and numbers, also known as SHI ING MARK, are used to identify the goods and prevent wrong delivery. They usually consist of the model, the abbreviation of the receiving unit of the graphic goods, the port of destination, the number of pieces or the batch number, etc.

(5) Weight size. The unit of weight is kilogram, and the size is cubic meter;

(6) For pallet cargo, the weight and size of the pallet and the weight and size of the cargo should be indicated separately. For over-length, overweight, and over-height cargo, the detailed volume (length, width, and height) of each piece of cargo should be provided, and The weight of each piece, so that the freight company can calculate cargo stowage factors and arrange special loading equipment.

(7) Freight payment method. -Generally there are freight prepaid (FREIGHT PREPAID) and freight collect (FREIGHT COLLECT). For some transshipment goods, one-way transportation fee is prepaid, and two-way transportation fee is paid on collection, which should be indicated separately.

(8) Whether transshipment is possible, in batches, as well as the date of shipment and validity, etc., should be specified in accordance with the requirements of the letter of credit or contract.

(9) The informant, the consignee, decide whether to fill in as needed.

(10) Relevant transportation terms, booking space, loading L/C cargo customers have special requirements should be listed.

2. Shipping Order (SHI ING ORDER--S/O)

It is the shipping company that has accepted the shipper’s application for shipment and issued it to the shipper on the basis of a document ordering the captain to ship the cargo. The shipping order can be used as the basis for shipment, and it is also one of the main documents used by the owner to go through the export declaration formalities with the customs.

3. The receipt (MATES RECEIPT--M/R),

Also known as the chief mate's receipt, it is the receipt of receipt of the goods by the ship and the proof that the goods have been loaded on the ship.

Since the main items of the three documents mentioned above are basically the same, the practice in some major ports in our country is to make them into combined orders, which can reduce workload and errors.


It is a summary list of the loading list prepared by the carrier according to the loading list, classifying the cargo to be loaded on the whole ship according to the port of destination and the nature of the cargo, and arranging the loading list according to the voyage and the order of the port. The basis is also a business document for the on-site tally staff to tally the goods, the Hong Kong side arranges the lighter, enters and exits the warehouse, and the carrier has the business documents.


Also known as small bill of lading. If the consignee exchanges the original bill of lading or a copy of the bill of lading with a valid guarantee from the carrier or its agent, it can obtain a certificate from the port loading and unloading department. When issuing small bills of lading, you should:

(1) The original bill of lading is held by the legal holder

(2) The non-clean remarks on the bill of lading should be transferred to the small bill of lading.

(3) In the event of overfill, shortfall, or disability, the consignee has the right to obtain the corresponding visa from the carrier or its agent.

(4) If the freight has not been paid, the small bill of lading shall be released after the consignee has paid the freight and related expenses.

6. The bill of lading (BILL OF LADING--B/L) is a receipt of goods (RECEIPT OF GOODS) issued by the carrier or its agent at the request of the shipper, which is issued after the goods are taken into their care. The goods listed on the bill of lading have been received; it is a document of title of goods (DOCUMENT OF TITLE). The holder of the bill of lading can pick up the goods on this basis, or on the basis of this to the bank, and can also transfer the cargo before the cargo ship arrives at the port of destination; it is the proof of the contract of carriage between the carrier and the shipper.
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