Chemicals refer to pure substances and mixtures of various elements, whether natural or man-made.
According to the American Chemical Digest, there are as many as 7 million chemicals in the world, of which more than 100,000 are listed as commodities, and more than 70,000 are frequently used. Each year, there are more than 1,000 new chemicals in the world. Kind.
Article 3 of the 'Regulations on the Safety Management of Hazardous Chemicals' The term 'hazardous chemicals' in these regulations refers to highly toxic chemicals and other chemicals that have toxic, corrosive, explosive, burning, and combustion-supporting properties and are harmful to humans, facilities and the environment Product.
1. Physical and chemical hazards: explosives, flammable gases, flammable aerosols, oxidizing gases, gases under pressure, flammable liquids, flammable solids, self-reactive substances or mixtures, pyrophoric liquids, pyrophoric solids, self-heating substances and mixtures, Substances or mixtures, oxidizing liquids, oxidizing solids, organic peroxides, and metal corrosives that emit flammable gases in contact with water.
2. Health hazards: acute toxicity, skin corrosion/irritation, serious eye damage/eye irritation, respiratory or skin allergy, germ cell mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, reproductive toxicity, specific target organ system toxicity (one contact), specificity Target organ system toxicity (repeated exposure), risk of inhalation.
Any chemical that can cause death, temporary disability or permanent damage to humans or animals through its chemical action on the life process. This includes all such chemicals, regardless of their source or method of production, and whether they are produced in facilities, ammunition, or elsewhere.
Highly toxic chemicals
Highly toxic chemicals refer to the chemicals in the catalog of highly toxic chemicals determined and announced by the State Council’s work safety supervision and management department in conjunction with the State Council’s public security, environmental protection, health, quality inspection, and transportation departments. Generally, they are chemicals with very severe toxic hazards, including synthetic chemicals and their mixtures (including pesticides) and natural toxins.
Chemical drugs are raw materials and their preparations prepared by synthetic or semi-synthetic methods; new effective monomers and their preparations extracted from natural substances or by fermentation; known drugs prepared by methods such as resolution or synthesis Optical isomers and their preparations.
Legal definition: refers to a substance that is used to prevent, eliminate or control diseases, pests, grasses and other harmful organisms that harm agriculture and forestry, as well as to regulate the growth of plants and insects, or a substance derived from biological or other natural substances. Or mixtures of several substances and their preparations.
According to the definition of 'Chinese Agricultural Encyclopedia・Pesticide Volume', pesticides (Pesticides) mainly refer to the prevention and control of harmful organisms (pests, harmful mites, nematodes, pathogens, weeds and rodents) that endanger the production of agriculture, forestry, and animal husbandry and regulating plants Growing chemicals, but usually also include various additives that improve the physical and chemical properties of the active ingredients.
Pollutant, English is pollutant. Generally, pollutants refer to substances that can directly or indirectly harm humans after entering the environment. There are many types, and the great harm can also be explained as: after entering the environment, the normal composition of the environment changes, directly or indirectly harmful to humans.
In fact, pollutants can be defined as: substances that change the normal composition of the environment after entering the environment, directly or indirectly harmful to the growth, development and reproduction of organisms. The targets of pollutants are all living things including humans.
Environmental pollutants refer to substances that are directly or indirectly harmful to organisms and humans due to the entry of human activities into the environment, which changes the normal composition and nature of the environment.
Volatile organic compounds
According to the definition of the World Health Organization, a compound with a boiling point of 50°C-250°C, a saturated vapor pressure of more than 133.32Pa at room temperature, is a type of organic matter that exists in the air in the form of vapor at room temperature. According to their chemical structure, it can be further divided into eight categories: alkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, alkenes, halocarbons, esters, aldehydes, ketones and others. The main components of VOC are: hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, oxygen hydrocarbons and nitrogen hydrocarbons, which include: benzene series, organic chlorides, Freon series, organic ketones, amines, alcohols, ethers, esters, acids and petroleum hydrocarbon compounds Wait.
Semi-volatile organic compounds
Semi-volatile organic pollutants (SVOCs) are organic compounds with a boiling point of 170-350°C and a vapor pressure of 13.3-10 -5 Pa. Some SVOCs are easily adsorbed on particulate matter. Mainly include dioxins, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organic pesticides, chlorinated benzenes, polychlorinated biphenyls, pyridines, quinolines, nitrobenzenes, phthalates, and nitrosamines , Anilines, phenols, polychlorinated naphthalenes and polybrominated biphenyls and other compounds. These organic compounds mainly exist in two forms of gaseous or aerosol in ambient air.
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